Understanding Transmedia Music on YouTube through

Disney Storytelling

Transmedia storytelling has been integrated into contemporary society through social media, where influencers have enabled the building of worlds. Within this environment of human-interaction, fiction and converging social realities have become an essential tool to tell stories. On YouTube, storytelling has expanded to music, where cover videos take on great relevance. The aim of this study is to understand the transmedia music phenomenon due to the impact of music on the platform. To this end, we applied a methodology that stemmed from Grounded Theory principles in the analysis of 300 Disney animation song covers in three stages: (1) deductive and inductive codebook development; (2) social network analysis; and (3) statistical test. The results showed that youtubers highlight specific audiovisual codes from the film and cultural industries. Furthermore, we observed these productions often display configurations that expand the original story through performance, location, costumes, make-up, among others. We argue that, on the digital sphere, a sustainable transmedia music paradigm is developing, where performers construct more meaningful and valuable stories.

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'How to Botox' on YouTube: Influence and Beauty Procedures in the Era of User-Generated Content

The current media environment is complex and has important effects on all aspects of life, including beauty and health. In this sense, YouTube has become one of the main contexts for the dissemination of tutorials and content related to medical procedures such as the application of Botox. Thus, the present study constitutes the first exploratory analysis of YouTube videos in Spanish related to this procedure. A preliminary analysis of 221 YouTube videos yielded a final sample of the 50 most viewed videos within this genre. The analysis was carried out through a quantitative content analysis assessing the popularity of the videos, contact and emotive strategies by the creator, the credibility conveyed, and the characteristics of information about the procedure itself. Results suggest that these influencers align with mainstream Internet celebrity culture in practices that aim at increasing their following and views, as well as calls for subscriptions and visits to other platforms and profiles. Moreover, they include different strategies to establish their credibility but emphasize personal experience. The positive portrayal of the procedure, including positive emotions and content that highlights the benefits, is interesting and supports the commercial nature of much of the content.

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#MigrantCaravan: The border wall

and the establishment of otherness on Instagram

Recent media attention aimed at migrant caravans at the US–Mexico border has increased interest from different actors in the political and social spheres. Parallel to traditional and mainstream media, social media has become the prime context where narratives about the border develop, molding broader societal perspectives on the immigration issue. Through a content and discourse analysis of 105 posts connected by the #MigrantCaravan or #CaravanaMigrante hashtags, we delved into how media representations of immigration on Instagram effectively establish otherness between the different characters involved in this phenomenon. The border wall emerges as one of the main components in these narratives and a symbol of the temporal and spatial stages of the migratory journey. Meanwhile, the voice of the main character, the migrant, is mostly absent, often conveyed through biased views, filtered by the opinions of posters about immigration and characterized by new narrative configurations enabled by the Instagram format.

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El 'efecto ventrilocuo' en las agencias internacionales de noticias. Revisión teórica e incidencia en las nuevas formas de desinformación

Esta investigación reflexiona, desde una perspectiva teórica, cómo a través de las agencias de noticias se difunden la mayoría de los acontecimientos internacionales que llegan al resto de los medios de comunicación, provocando el conocido «efecto ventrílocuo»: múltiples medios, una sola voz; y se indaga sobre cómo las plataformas online han fomentado este fenómeno, provocando un aumento estructural de la desinformación. En este sentido, la investigación tiene por objetivo conocer el desarrollo del «efecto ventrílocuo» con el progreso de los «nuevos medios» y como consecuencia, el aumento de la desinformación. Para este análisis documental de teoría fundamentada, el procedimiento metodológico se ha basado en la revisión bibliográfica de la literatura en las bases de datos internacionales de referencia (WoS y Scopus), realizando un análisis de estudios primarios, con el fin de sintetizar la información. Los resultados indican, entre otras cuestiones, que las redes sociales fomentan espacios de desinformación estructural en el ecosistema actual. En conclusión, se determina la relación entre el «efecto ventrílocuo» y la desinformación, que surge como consecuencia de la reticularidad y descentralización informativo-digital.

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Measuring Digital Citizenship: A Comparative Analysis

This paper aims at showing a state of the art about digital citizenship from the methodological point of view when it comes to measuring this construct. The review of the scientific literature offers at least ten definitions and nine different scales of measurement. The comparative and diachronic analysis of the content of the definitions shows us two conceptions of digital citizenship, some more focused on digital competences and others on critical and activist aspects. This paper replicates and compares three scales of measurement of digital citizenship selected for their relevance and administered in a sample of 366 university students, to analyze their psychometric properties and the existing coincidences and divergences between the three. The most outstanding conclusion is that not all of them seem to measure the same construct, due to its diversity of dimensions. An online activism dimension needs to be incorporated if digital citizenship is to be measured. There is an urgent need to agree internationally on a definition of digital citizenship with its corresponding dimensions to elaborate a reliable and valid measuring instrument.